As Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) programs for packaging and paper products (PPP) are considered and introduced across the United States, questions have developed on the effects that EPR might have on a variety of recycling system characteristics.

At its core, EPR serves to transfer the costs of operating recycling programs from governments to producers of PPP.

Most systems, however, seek some form of outcome related to environmental performance.

Environmental outcomes often associated with EPR include:
• Outcome 1: increases in recycling rates
• Outcome 2: increases in recycled content usage
• Outcome 3: increases in design-for-recycling practices
• Outcome 4: increases in the market value of collected packaging waste

To illustrate the ways in which EPR programs intend to address these four outcomes and their measurable success in doing so, the EPR programs in France, Germany, and Italy have been reviewed in this report.

These three countries were selected because they have well-established EPR programs that have evolved over time to take into consideration the changes in environmental pressures.

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